Posts Tagged ‘passion-based learning’
Maker education is currently a major trend in education. But just saying that one is doing Maker Education really doesn’t define the teaching practices that an educator is using to facilitate it. Maker education takes on many forms. This post provides an overview of how maker education is being implemented based on the teaching practices as defined by the Pedagogy, Andragogy, Heutagogy (PAH) continuum.
created by Jon Andrews
Traditionally, Pedagogy was defined as the art of teaching children and Andragogy as teaching adults. These definitions have evolved to reflect teacher practices. As such, andragogical and heutagogical practices can be used with children and youth.
PAH within a Maker Education Framework
The following chart distinguishes and describes maker education within the PAH framework. All teaching styles have a place in Maker Education. For example, pedagogical practices may be needed to teach learners some basic making skills. It helps to scaffold learning, so learners have a foundation for making more complex projects. I do, though, believe that maker education projects and programs should go beyond pedagogical oriented teaching as the overriding goal of maker education is for learners to create something, anything that they haven’t before.
- Pedagogy – How well can you create this particular maker education project?
- Andragogy – How can this prescribed maker project by adapted and modified?
- Heutagogy – What do you want to make?
Overall Purpose or Goal
- Pedagogy – To teach basic skills as a foundation for future projects – scaffolding.
- Andragogy – To provide some structure so learners can be self-directed.
- Heutogogy – To establish an environment where learners can determine their own goals, learning paths, processes, and products for making.
Role of the Educator
- Pedagogy – To teach, demonstrate, help learners do the maker education project correctly.
- Andragogy – To facilitate, assist learners, mentor
- Heutagogy – To coach, mentor, be a sounding board, be a guide very much on the side.
- Pedagogy – Use of prescribed kits, templates; step-by-step directions and tutorials.
- Andragogy – Use of some templates; learners add their own designs and embellishments.
- Heutagogy -Open ended; determined by the learner.
- Pedagogy – A maker project that looks and acts like the original model.
- Andragogy – A maker project that has some attributes of the original model but that includes the learner’s original ideas.
- Heutagogy – A maker project that is unique to the learner (& to the learning community).
I believe it is every educator’s responsibility to help insure that learners are addressing the following questions during each school day:
- What questions am I asking today?
- What answers am I seeking today?
- What am I exploring today?
- What am I making today?
- What am I finding exciting today?
- How am I playing and having fun today?
- How am I using failure to inform my learning today?
- What am I doing today to cooperate with others?
- How am I documenting my learning today?
- How am I sharing with others what I am learning today?
- What am I doing today that has the potential to benefit the world?
One of my guilty pleasures is watching MasterChef Junior, a cooking competition for 8 to 12 year olds, and as an educator, I have been analyzing it as a model for good teaching. My observations include:
- The challenges are hands-on and naturally engaging for these kids. They are based on the kids’ passion for and interest in cooking.
- The kids don’t need to be graded about their performances. Consequences are natural. Food gets burned. The kids sometimes get burned. The food dishes taste good or they don’t.
- There is a gamelike atmosphere. There are elements of play, leveling up (each subsequent challenge is more difficult), a sense of mastery or achievement upon accomplishing each challenge. The experience is immersive with the kids living the part of a chef. The kids get to try new roles such as team leaders, lead chefs, team representative, and being popular (this is one of the first situations that some of these kids get to shine).
- The kids push themselves to the limit within seemingly impossible challenges – mostly because of their love for cooking, a strong intrinsic motivator. The kids often create very difficult food dishes that they have never created before. They often rise to the challenges surprising both themselves and the judges with what they created.
Just seeing the kids … when their hands go up, and the look on their faces of what they have done is unbelievable. You can tell right on their face at that moment if they’re happy or if they’ve completely blown it. Obviously there are failures, and they’re crying. For the ones that have done well, when they put their hands up and they are proud of what they just put on the plate, that look — there’s no words to even go there with it. It’s unbelievable, because you know that they put everything into it. (Inside “MasterChef Junior,” the best cooking show on television)
- The challenges are designed to be novel and create excitement and joy for the kids – there are things like mystery food boxes; the judges introduces challenges are astronauts; the kids cooking for other kids at an amusement. The kids visible shake with excitement and anticipation while the challenges are being introduced.
- The judges are clear, specific, and truthful with their feedback: both positive and negative. The judges give brutally honest feedback. They are very specific in describing what worked and what didn’t work about about the kids’ food creations. Sometimes the kids cry but there is visible respect that the kids have for the judges and that judges have for the kids.
Even when Gorden (the top chef and host) is disciplining them, or yelling at them about something, there’s this level of respect that the child has for him, and he has for the child, that total care. They know, they get it. He’s this grandiose father figure that has the career of their dreams, and he just does it so naturally. He doesn’t sugarcoat things for them like they are a toddler. I mean, he really goes at them when they need it, but there’s always this wonderful constructive element. So that was awesome to see. (Inside “MasterChef Junior,” the best cooking show on television)
- There is an atmosphere of mutual respect . . . kids for the judges, judges for the kids, and kids for one another.
- The adult judges will come in and help the kids if they see any individual being pushed too far over their limits and capabilities. This intervention is based on teaching the kids proper technique not doing it for them.
- There is a healthy competition where the kids have to compete against one another. The objective is to win but the kids seem more concerned about their own performance rather than the performance of their peers.
- The kids, through working together on many of their challenges, develop into a close knit team and visibly support each other. Even though they are competing against each other, they seem to understand they are with like minded peers. In effect, they develop their own PLNs based on similar interests. For some, it is the first time they have been with peers with a passion for cooking. Many cry when one of their peers in eliminated from the competition and say that they made friends for life.
What I believe the kids learn during their MasterChef Junior experiences:
- Additional cross-curricular skills including math skills, oral communication, following directions;
- Working with a team;
- Tolerance for frustration;
- That their passions and interests are valuable and meaningful.
Many of the kids in interviews following their elimination from the competition state that it was the best experience of their lives. I have a hunch that many of these kids would say their MasterChef experiences taught them as much or more than all of the school years combined. I’ve written about creating the conditions for the best day ever.
It’s mind blowing how much I grew as a chef, how much I grew as a person. 12 year old Zac
Educators, in this era of learning, should focus on those conditions that create an environment that each and every one of their students love coming to school and love learning.