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Posts Tagged ‘emotional intelligence

Educators as Purveyors of Hope

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My advanced degree is in counseling. I sought this degree due to my affinity towards at-risk and adjudicated youth. One of the most powerful learnings from my training as a counselor was a comment I heard at a conference, Counselors need to be purveyors of hope since many clients get in trouble and/or seek counseling due to a lack of hope.

I have since become a teacher educator (with some teaching of elementary gifted students at a few Title 1 schools thrown in). I believe that educators do more counseling of children and young people than any other profession. Teachers, then, should be purveyors of hope especially for those students who lack the belief in their own capabilities and potential  This includes students who lack hope that they can do well in certain subjects; students who lack hope that they can do well in school-as-a-whole; and saddest of all, students who lack hope for their futures. The educator, as a purveyor of hope, gives these types of learners the overt message, “I will hold hope for you because I believe in you. The goal, though, is for you to develop your own sense of hope.”

Hope often gets a bad rap. For some, it conjures up images of a blissfully naïve chump pushing up against a wall with a big smile. That’s a shame. Cutting-edge science shows that hope, at least as defined by psychologists, matters a lot.

Hope is not just a feel-good emotion, but a dynamic cognitive motivational system. Under this conceptualization of hope, emotions follow cognitions, not the other way round. Hope-related cognitions are important. Hope leads to learning goals, which are conducive to growth and improvement. People with learning goals are actively engaged in their learning, constantly planning strategies to meet their goals, and monitoring their progress to stay on track. A bulk of research shows that learning goals are positively related to success across a wide swatch of human life—from academic achievement to sports to arts to science to business. In contrast to both self-efficacy and optimism, people with hope have the will and the pathways and strategies necessary to achieve their goals (The Will and Ways of Hope).

Over the last 20 years, researchers have gained a clearer understanding of the relationships between hope and important aspects of students’ lives. Put simply, research demonstrates that more hopeful students do better in school and life than less hopeful students.

  • Hope is positively associated with perceived competence and self-worth (Marques, Pais-Ribeiro, & Lopez, 2009) and negatively associated with symptoms of depression (Snyder, Hoza, et al., 1997).
  • High-hope students typically are more optimistic (Snyder, Hoza, et al., 1997), develop many life goals, and perceive themselves as being capable of solving problems that may arise (Snyder, Hoza, et al., 1997).
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that hope is related to life satisfaction and wellbeing (e.g., Gilman, Dooley, & Florell, 2006).
  • Hope is linked consistently to attendance and credits earned (Gallup, 2009a).
  • Hopeful middle school students have better grades in core subjects (Marques, Pais-Ribeiro, & Lopez, 2011) and on achievement tests (Snyder, Hoza, et al., 1997).
  • Hopeful high school students (Gallup, 2009b; Snyder et al., 1991) and beginning college students (Gallagher & Lopez, 2008; Snyder et al., 2002) have higher overall grade point averages.
  • Hope predicts academic achievement, and the predictive power of hope remains significant even when controlling for intelligence (e.g., Snyder, Cheavens, & Sympson, 1997), prior grades (e.g., Gallagher & Lopez, 2008; Snyder et al., 1991; Snyder et al., 2002), self-esteem (Snyder et al., 2002), personality (Day, Hanson, Maltby, Proctor, & Wood, 2010), and college entrance examination scores such as high school GPA and ACT/SAT (Gallagher & Lopez, 2008; Snyder et al., 2002).
  • Higher hope has been correlated positively with social competence (Barnum, Snyder, Rapoff, Mani, & Thompson, 1998), pleasure in getting to know others, enjoyment in frequent interpersonal interactions (Snyder, Hoza, et al., 1997), and interest in the goal pursuits of others (Snyder, Cheavens, & Sympson, 1997). (Measuring and Promoting Help in Schoolchildren)

Some of the characteristics or skills sets of hope include:

  • Positive View About the Future
  • Can Do Attitude
  • Personal Agency
  • Engage in Positive Self Talk
  • Belief in Ability to Solve Problems
  • Belief in One’s Ability to Impact Positively on One’s Situation.
  • Maintaining Perspective
  • Sense of Efficacy


For educators who want to help their students build these skills of hope, here are five research-based guidelines. From How to Help Students Develop Hope:

  1. Identify and prioritize their top goals, from macro to micro. Start by having students create a “big picture” list of what’s important to them—such as their academics, friends, family, sports, or career—and then have them reflect on which areas are most important to them and how satisfied they are with each.
  2. Breakdown the goals—especially long-term ones—into steps. Research has suggested that students with low hope frequently think goals have to be accomplished all-at-once, possibly because they haven’t had the parental guidance on how to achieve goals in steps. Teaching them how to see their goals as a series of steps will also give students reasons to celebrate their successes along the way—a great way to keep motivation high!
  3. Teach students that there’s more than one way to reach a goal. Studies show that one of the greatest challenges for students with low hope is their inability to move past obstacles. They often lack key problem-solving skills, causing them to abandon the quest for their goals.
  4. Tell stories of success.  Scientists have found that hopeful students draw on memories of other successes when they face an obstacle; however, students with low hope often don’t have these kinds of memories. That’s why it’s vital for teachers to read books or share stories of other people—especially kids—who have overcome adversity to reach their goals.
  5. Keep it light and positive. It’s important to teach students to enjoy the process of attaining their goals, even to laugh at themselves when they face obstacles and make mistakes. Above all, no self-pity! Research has found that students who use positive self-talk, rather than beating themselves up for mistakes, are more likely to reach their goals.

Parting Shot: I recently watched the documentary STEP, which provides a great example of administrators and teachers instilling hope into a marginalized population.

STEP documents the senior year of a girls’ high-school step dance team against the background of inner-city Baltimore. These young women learn to laugh, love and thrive – on and off the stage – even when the world seems to work against them. Empowered by their teachers, teammates, counselors, coaches and families, they chase their ultimate dreams: to win a step championship and to be accepted into college.  This all female school is reshaping the futures of its students’ lives by making it their goal to have every member of their senior class accepted to and graduate from college, many of whom will be the first in their family to do so (

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

January 5, 2018 at 10:40 pm

Grit: The Other 21st Century Skills

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Due to the interest of my post The Other 21st Skills, I decided to discuss individually each of the skills or dispositions I proposed that are in addition to the seven survival skills as identified by Tony Wagner.


This post focuses on Grit:

6a00d8341c721253ef017d3d5bc316970c-800wiHere is Angela Duckwoth’s TED Talk about Grit that provides an overview about the topic.

Angela Duckworth developed a scale to measure Grit found at

Some of characteristics or dispositions of Grit include:

  • Perseverance and Tenacity
  • Deliberate Practice
  • Ability to Delay Gratification
  • Passion-Driven Focus
  • Self Control and Self Discipline
  • Long Term Goal-Oriented
  • Stick-to-it-ness Under Difficult Conditions
  • Consistency of Effort


So how can Grit be taught or facilitated?

  • Awareness of grit can be brought more into conscious by first, teaching learners about grit and then by helping them reflect on their degree and level of grit.  This can occur through discussions, writing or journaling, or through some form of artistic expression – a series of drawings, photos, or videos about examples of when and how they experience sustained and deliberate practice, consistency of effort, and ability to delay gratification.
  • Grit can be practiced through having learners do long term project-based learning activities and/or working on long term independent studies based on their interests and passions.

Students should be provided with opportunities to take on higher-order or long-term goals that are “worthy” to the student—goals that are “optimally challenging” and aligned with the students’ own interests. An important principle is that students are likely see goals as “worthy” when they engage their interest and enthusiasm through alignment with specific interests or established values and goals. When students have opportunities to work toward goals that are meaningfully connected to their future success, cultural values, lives outside of school, and/or topics that are personally interesting and relevant, they are more likely to persevere when faced with challenge. In many cases, particularly with unfamiliar material, educators need to engage students in activities that bridge from their interests and familiar experiences to the learning objectives to help students attain more complex learning goals. (Promoting Grit, Tenacity, and Perseverance—Critical Factors for Success in the 21st Century)

  • Grit can be reinforced though provide emotionally and intellectual support for grit-related behaviors.

Rigorous and supportive learning environments instill, for example, high expectations, a growth mindset, expectations for challenge and early failure, cycles of constructive feedback and iteration, and a sense of belonging; and support for strategies to plan, monitor, and stay on track. (Promoting Grit, Tenacity, and Perseverance—Critical Factors for Success in the 21st Century)

  • For grit to flourish, learners need to be given tangible resources.

Students are also more likely to persevere in learning environments that provide the tangible resources—materials, human, and time—necessary to overcome challenges and accomplish their goals. Depending on the type of goals, materials can include access to particular programs, technology, rigorous curriculum, equipment or materials to complete projects, course tuition, or physical facilities where students can do their work. Human resources can include mentoring, tutoring, peer guidance, teachers with particular training, or special services. Time can also be a precious resource—in optimal challenge, students need to have adequate time to grapple with their difficulties, reflect, get feedback, iterate, and try new approaches. (Promoting Grit, Tenacity, and Perseverance—Critical Factors for Success in the 21st Century)

  • As a final note about promoting or facilitating grit, giving extrinsic based rewards does not help in developing grit.

Perseverance that is the result of a “token economy” that places a strong emphasis on punishments and rewards may undermine long-term grit; in particular, while these fundamentally manipulative supports can seem to “work” in the short-run, when students go to a different environment without these supports, they may not have developed the appropriate psychological resources to continue to thrive. (Promoting Grit, Tenacity, and Perseverance—Critical Factors for Success in the 21st Century)

Vicki Davis in the Edutopia article True Grit: The Best Measure of Success and How to Teach It has these additional suggestions for “teaching” grit in the classroom:

  1. Read books about grit.
  2. Talk about grit.
  3. Share problems.
  4. Help students develop a growth mindset.
  5. Find a framework.
  6. Live grittily.
  7. Foster safe circumstances that encourage grit.

Additional Educational Resources:

While there is a great deal of work in this area broadly, the importance of grit, tenacity, and perseverance in education is not necessarily widely known, and stakeholders at many levels may not understand the importance of investing resources in these priorities. In many settings, awareness-raising is necessary so that teachers, administrators, parents, and all other stakeholders in the educational community see these issues as important and become invested in supporting change: Educators, administrators, and parents who understand the importance of these issues and are passionate about shifting educational priorities, within their own institutions and beyond, need to become proactive advocates for change in the educational community to gain buy-in, tangible support for students as they pursue big goals, financial resources, and political support. (Promoting Grit, Tenacity, and Perseverance—Critical Factors for Success in the 21st Century)

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

June 1, 2013 at 1:45 am

Learner Agency, Technology, and Emotional Intelligence

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Early in my training as an educator, I was exposed to William Glasser’s conceptualization of basic human needs and their importance in creating a healthy educational setting.  They are:

  • Belonging – Fulfilled by loving, sharing, and cooperating with others
  • Power – Fulfilled by achieving, accomplishing, and being recognized and respected
  • Freedom – Fulfilled by making choices
  • Fun – Fulfilled by laughing and playing

They resonated deeply and made sense to me.  Instructional strategies and learning activities should build in ways for learners to get these needs met.

The needs of freedom and power are of special note to this essay/topic:

  • Freedom – This is the need to choose how we live our lives, to express ourselves freely, and to be free from the control of others. Helping students, especially younger ones, satisfy this need does not mean giving them the freedom to do whatever they want to do. It is giving them the freedom to choose.
  • Power – The need for power is the need to feel that we are in control of our own lives. When educators give their students the message that they need to learn in ways that the teachers ultimately demand, their need for power becomes frustrated.  When students are given choices, their need for power is satisfied and they gain feelings that they are responsible enough to have control over their own learning and behavior.(

What is learner agency?

Learner agency is “the capability of individual human beings to make choices and act on these choices in a way that makes a difference in their lives” (   As related to the needs as identified by Glasser, elements of freedom, choosing how we want to live our lives, and power, choosing what and how to learn, address learner agency.

The notion of agency as contributing to cognitive processes involved in learning comes primarily from the Piagetian notion of constructivism where knowledge is seen as “constructed” through a process of taking actions in one’s environment and making adjustments to existing knowledge structures based on the outcome of those actions. The implication is that the most transformative learning experiences will be those that are directed by the learner’s own endeavors and curiosities. (Lindgren & McDaniel, 2012)

Schwartz and Okita developed the following table to compare and contrast high versus low agency learning environments.


Learner Agency and Emotional Intelligence

A direct connection can be found between self-directed learning, learner agency, and emotional intelligence. Learner agency leads to increased feelings of competence, self-control, and self-determinism; and higher emotional intelligence. Bandura (2001) highlights the role of agency in the self-regulation of learning: “The core features of agency enable people to play a part in their self-development, adaptation, and self-renewal with changing times” (p. 2) (in Lindgren & McDaniel, 2012).

Boyatzis (2002) connected self-directed learning and emotional intelligence, which he discussed extensively in his article Unleashing the Power of Self-Directed Learning.  He specified some signposts of self-directed learning.

  1. Has the person engaged his/her passion and dreams?
  2. Can the person articulate both his/her strengths (those aspects he/she wants to preserve) and gaps or discrepancies between those aspects he/she wants to adapt or change?
  3. Does the person have his/her own personal learning agenda? Is it really his/her own? Can the elements of the plan fit into the structure of his/her life? Do the actions fit with his/her learning style and flexibility?
  4. Is the person experimenting and practicing new habits and actions? Is the person using their learning plan to learn more from their experiences?
  5. Has the person found settings in which to experiment and practice in which he/she feels psychologically safe?
  6. Is the person developing and utilizing his/her relationships as part of their learning process? Does he/she have coaches, mentors, friends, and others with whom they can discuss progress on their learning agenda?
  7. Is the person helping others engage in a self-directed learning process?

Learner Agency and Technology

Learner agency is feasible in educational settings, both formal and informal, given this Internet age of information abundance and ease of access, and the use of social networks for personal learning.  The final piece of this discussion focuses on leveraging technology to enable, elicit, and encourage learner agency which in turn builds emotional intelligence.

Technology presents new opportunities for drawing out and leveraging student agency. One of the ways that technology accomplishes this is by personalizing the learning experience, allowing students to work at their own pace and being responsive and responsible to their own individual needs. (Corbett, Koedinger, & Anderson, 1997, in Lindgren, R., & McDaniel, R. (2012.). As Magni (1995) noted in her dissertation, if we combine the principles of learner-centered pedagogy, the methods of participatory design and the flexibility offered by the Internet, educators can use technology not as a prescriptive learning tool but as one that enables students and teachers to gather material, manipulate and alter resources to design environments that are suitable and appropriate for the learners. 

Technology also has the potential to directly enhance emotional intelligence.  Chia-Jung Lee (2011) described some ways:

  • Digital tools can connect people’s feeling to enhance emotional learning. Digital tools can support students’ emotional connection to a content or other people. This helps students learn better.
  • Technology can satisfy personal learning pace and style to support emotional learning.  The flexibility of digital tools enables students to learn based on the way that they feel most comfortable [which is directly related to agency.]
  • Digital tools can provide private spaces for students to explore difficult issues.
  • Empathy can be enhanced through emotional learning by means of technology. For example, students may develop empathy by viewing videos of personal stories of others in need; others who are experiencing some form of distress or problems.

What follows are some general ideas for using technology to encourage self-directed learning, learner agency, self-regulation, and self-determinism.

  • Create a database of student passions, interests, hobbies.  Share the list with the students so they can connect with one another.
  • Offer students a variety of different ways to learn content material – video, audio, online readings, games.  Let them choose ways to learn it.  Invite students to add to the resource archive.
  • Ask students to curate a subtopic within the larger topic being covered based on their own interests.  Offer a choice of online curation tools (e.g.,, Pinterest, MentorMob, Diigo) for them to use.
  • Encourage students to set personal goals for themselves for the class.  Provide some online options (e.g. 8 Online Goal Progress Tracking Tools) or apps (15 Fantastic Apps to Track & Manage Your Goals; Goal setting Android Apps; ) to track progress.
  • Ask students to find an expert in their area of interest via a social media and attempt to make contact via Twitter, Facebook, Skype, etc.
  • Assist students in developing their own PLNs using social networking sites of their own choosing (Facebook, Instagram, Tumblr).
  • Allow students to express what they learned in a way that works for them.  A list of ideas can be found at A Technology-Enhanced Celebration of Learning.
  • Ask students to publish and share their work with their own networked public.
  • Implement a peer feedback process; where groups of peers develop their own grading criteria and use this criteria to review one another’s work.
  • Ideas for others – please let me know.


Boyatzis, R.E. (2002). Unleashing the power of self-directed learning. In R. Sims (ed.), Changing the Way We Manage Change: The Consultants Speak. NY: Quorum Books.  Retrieved from

Chia-Jung Lee (2011). Technology Integration and Emotional Learning. Retrieved from

Lindgren, R., & McDaniel, R. (2012). Transforming Online Learning through Narrative and Student Agency. Educational Technology & Society, 15 (4), 344–355.

Magni, P. (1995). The design and development of a hypertext environment for adult learners of Italian. Doctoral Dissertation.

Schwartz, D. L,  & Okita, S.  The Productive Agency in Learning by Teaching.

The Social Skills Place. (2010). 4 Basic Psychological Needs That Motivate Behavior.  Retrieved from

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

January 4, 2013 at 11:11 pm

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