User Generated Education

Education as it should be – passion-based.

Maker Education: Pedagogy, Andragogy, Heutagogy

with 5 comments

Maker education is currently a major trend in education. But just saying that one is doing Maker Education really doesn’t define the teaching practices that an educator is using to facilitate it. Maker education takes on many forms. This post provides an overview of how maker education is being implemented based on the teaching practices as defined by the  Pedagogy, Andragogy, Heutagogy (PAH) continuum.


created by Jon Andrews

Traditionally, Pedagogy was defined as the art of teaching children and Andragogy as teaching adults. These definitions have evolved to reflect teacher practices. As such, andragogical and heutagogical practices can be used with children and youth.

PAH within a Maker Education Framework

The following chart distinguishes and describes maker education within the PAH framework. All teaching styles have a place in Maker Education. For example, pedagogical practices may be needed to teach learners some basic making skills. It helps to scaffold learning, so learners have a foundation for making more complex projects. I do, though, believe that maker education projects and programs should go beyond pedagogical oriented teaching as the overriding goal of maker education is for learners to create something, anything that they haven’t before.

Driving Questions

  • Pedagogy – How well can you create this particular maker education project?
  • Andragogy –  How can this prescribed maker project by adapted and modified?
  • Heutagogy – What do you want to make?

Overall Purpose or Goal

  • Pedagogy – To teach basic skills as a foundation for future projects – scaffolding.
  • Andragogy – To provide some structure so learners can be self-directed.
  • Heutogogy – To establish an environment where learners can determine their own goals, learning paths, processes, and products for making.

Role of the Educator

  • Pedagogy – To teach, demonstrate, help learners do the maker education project correctly.
  • Andragogy – To facilitate, assist learners, mentor
  • Heutagogy – To coach, mentor, be a sounding board, be a guide very much on the side.

Making Process

  • Pedagogy – Use of prescribed kits, templates; step-by-step directions and tutorials.
  • Andragogy  – Use of some templates; learners add their own designs and embellishments.
  • Heutagogy -Open ended; determined by the learner.

Finish Products

  • Pedagogy – A maker project that looks and acts like the original model.
  • Andragogy – A maker project that has some attributes of the original model but that includes the learner’s original ideas.
  • Heutagogy – A maker project that is unique to the learner (& to the learning community).

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5 Responses

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  1. Thanks for these wonderfully clear explanations.


    June 20, 2016 at 12:24 pm

    • Thanks, Norah!

      Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

      June 20, 2016 at 12:27 pm

  2. I love the chart!! I’m not an educator. I came out of manufacturing and when I started volunteering in schools after retirement I had to look up the word PEDAGOGY in a dictionary. Your definition and examples are much better than I was able to to with Google! I just purchased your Kindle book and look forward to reading it. I’m a big fan of MAKING as a way to learn. I was very fortunate as a kid to have a unique maker type of an opportunity. My dad ran a manufacturing plant and used to take me with him some Saturdays. There were lots of gadgets in the labs for me to just play with. He also bought me Heathkit electronics projects. I built my own set of walkie talkies when I was 13 or so. Learned to solder and what the circuit components were and kind of what they did. The best part was there were NO TESTS. If I did it correctly it worked, if not I had to figure out what was wrong and fix it. I was not ever good on big TESTS! Thanks again for your wonderful article. Looking forward to your book. Hope you can follow my website and Twitter @MfgStories – Dave


    June 26, 2016 at 5:56 pm

  3. […] by Jon Andrews cited in Gerstein, J. (2016). User Generated Education.… [accessed on […]

  4. thanks for your explanation about heutagogy. may be in Indonesia applied in kurikulum kerangka kualifikasi indonesia (KKNI).


    June 5, 2018 at 5:33 pm

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