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How Educators Can Assist Learners in Developing a Growth Mindset

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I have written, described, and presented about the growth mindset in education settings, see

This post delves a little deeper, and hopefully provides some additional ideas for how educators can assist their learners in developing a growth mindset.

Part of facilitating a growth mindset within learners involves changing some preconceptions of the role of teacher.  One such change is in viewing one of the roles as being that of a coach.  As Kirsten Olson discusses in Teacher As Coach: Transforming Teaching With the A Coaching Mindset:

Coaches operate with an underlying assumption that giving advice to others undermines the confidence and self-worth of others.  Others don’t need to be fixed.  In teaching we need to move to exactly this stance in order to foster creativity in our students–to allow our students the choice, control, novelty and challenge that builds their creativity.  Without the assumption that our students are already competent, imaginative, and ready to burst forth with regular exhibitions of novel and valuable ideas and products, we are limiting their creative capacities before they’ve even had a chance to discover them.

The educator, as a growth mindset facilitator and coach, has a different, often unique, set of beliefs about students learning and growth. The following infographic shows (1) the common beliefs of an educator who promotes a growth mindset, and (2) some reflection questions about instructional practices that reinforce the growth mindset:

Growth Mindset_ Educator Edition-2

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

September 28, 2014 at 2:35 pm

Growth Mindset: Personal Accountability and Reflection

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I am an adjunct faculty for several teacher education and educational technology programs.  I have been so for a few decades.  During that time I have noticed the changing nature of student behaviors and expectations regarding their class projects and assignments.  Students seem to expect perfect grades for not so perfect work.  I can predict that when I “mark down” a student, I will receive a complaint about that mark down (it happened just this evening) even with clear cut and concrete grading criteria like uses references to support ideas in blog posts, includes copyright available images.

I have been studying, blogging and presenting about the growth mindset (see The Educator with a Growth Mindset: A Staff Workshop).  When speaking of a growth mindset, a fixed mindset also needs to be discussed and described.  Fixed mindsets are associated with avoiding failure at all costs.  What I don’t see mentioned as part of a fixed, or maybe they be called toxic mindsets, are characteristics or attitudes like:

  • Mediocre is often good enough for me as long as I get the work done.
  • I expect my teachers to give me full credit for completion and submission of my work.  Quality is not a variable.
  • It is okay to just do “enough” work to minimally fulfill the requirements.
  • Good grades are what really matter to me.  I am not really interested in receiving qualitative feedback.

In response to these experiences, I developed a Personal Accountability and Reflection series of questions.  I will suggest that students use this “checklist” in order to develop and enhance their growth mindsets through personal accountability and reflection.

  • Did I work as hard as I could have?
  • Did I set and maintain high standards for myself?
  • Did I spend enough time to do quality work?
  • Did I regulate my procrastination, distractions, and temptations in order to complete my work?
  • Did I make good use of available resources?
  • Did I ask questions if I needed help?
  • Did I review and re-review my work for possible errors?
  • Did I consider best practices for similar work?
  • Is my work something for which I am proud – that I would proudly show to a large, global audience?

Growth Mindset_ Personal Accountability and Reflection

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

September 13, 2014 at 3:11 pm

The Intersection of Growth Mindsets and Maker Education

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I have a recent interest in both Growth Mindsets and Maker Education; and have blogged and presented on both of these topics.  As such and because of my passion for both of these area, I have been thinking about the intersection between the two.  This intersection, I found, is strong and powerful.

A growth mindset tolerates more risk and failure, while a fixed mindset tends to avoid risk and its accompanying frustration. It is obvious which mindset helps someone adapt to and contribute to a world that is constantly changing. Dweck points out that many who excel academically have a fixed mindset, which limits them to exploring only the areas they were told they were good at. Such mindsets are often found within the teaching profession itself, and presents a true challenge in adopting Maker principles to the classroom of the near future. Conversely, many who do poorly in school have taken too seriously the judgment of others about their abilities in subjects such as math or science. In both cases, such limiting views of oneself are self-defeating and can hold people back from exploring new areas and developing unknown capabilities. Making is about developing one’s full potential. (Ed Tech and the Maker Movement)

Craig Lambert notes the connections between a growth mindset and maker movement in a blog post he wrote for the Maker Faire Atlanta.

I’m aware that many, if not all, Makers seem to hold the growth mindset. They relish challenges, they want to stretch themselves, they want to try and do things that they have never done before.  In fact, it seems that what we really need as a human race is a whole lot more people with the growth mindset in order to tackle and overcome the many challenges we face. (A Growth Mindset)

Some of the characteristics of the intersection of a Growth Mindset and Making include:

  • Effort is valued.
  • Hard work leads to positive results.
  • Growth & development are at the forefront.
  • Everyone can do.
  • Focus is on the process of learning.
  • One’s personal strengths, creativity, curiosity breed results.
  • Challenges are seen as opportunities.
  • Capabilities and skills can be developed, improved, and expanded.
  • Failure is approached as iterative.
  • Feedback, positive and constructive, is openly accepted and used for growth.

growth&makerCreative Commons License
Growth Mindsets & Maker Education by Jackie Gerstein is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

September 7, 2014 at 9:13 pm

School Should Be More Like Camp

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Some things about me:

  • I love to learn, create, invent, ponder and imagine what can be.  I consider myself insatiable when it comes to learning
  • I hated school from 2nd grade through college.  It was painfully boring for me.
  • I loved summer camp.  I went to day camp for 10 years.
  • I have vivid memories of my camp experiences.  I have vague, blurred memories of school.
  • I feel that I learned so much more at camp than I did at school.
  • I believe that school wasted and basically stole my time.

So needless to say, I promote the idea that school should be more like camp. What follows is a chart comparing school to camp.  Which would you prefer to attend?  Which would you prefer your own children to experience?

traditionalvcamp

What follows are some excerpts of articles that reinforce these ideas.

From Why Can’t School Be More Like Camp

Focus on Relationships, Team Building, and Goal Setting

The first day of school would start with the teacher leading the students in team building activities and giving them ample opportunities to get to know each other. Kids would be paired and grouped in different ways to make sure that everyone learns everyone else’s name. New kids would be warmly welcomed by returning kids.  They would also learn about each other’s talents and interests. This conversation would be ongoing throughout the year to give kids the chance to share with and encourage each other as they learn new things.

Hands-On, Active Learning by Doing

If school were more like camp, hands-on activities would far outnumber multiple-choice tests. The information that really “sticks” is the stuff we do, so why is so much time spent on memorizing things that are forgotten within days?

If school were more like camp, students would spend less time sitting at a desk quietly working by themselves on a work sheet and more time practicing teamwork and collaboration, working on science projects and presentations, acting out a book they are reading, and building their creativity and problem-solving skills.

Students would be encouraged to delve deeply into topics that interest them, regardless of what’s on the list of standards.

A Positive Culture

If school were more like camp, teachers would be trained to create a fun, warm, and inviting place as much as they are trained to teach math skills. They would learn how to find what is special and unique about each of their students and help their students feel valued and included.  Teachers would check in with each student, every day, asking how they’re doing and providing support if they are struggling. Kids would be excited to get to school, and teachers would greet each student with a smile and a high five, hug, handshake, or fist bump.

If school were more like camp, kids would be cheering for and supporting each other as they learn new skills. Kids would celebrate each other’s successes by making daily “WOW” announcements and leaving encouraging notes. For kids who are struggling in some area, supportive peers would provide guidance and encouragement. Kids would openly talk about their areas of strength and weakness and support each other in improving.

Core Subjects Plus “Free Choice” Learning and Pursuit of Passions

At camp, we require that kids participate in certain activities, even if they’re a little scared. We know that they benefit immensely from challenging themselves and building new skills. But we also allow kids to pursue activities that they are passionate about. What if school could be the same way? Kids would be required to learn specific skills, of course, just like they are now. But they would also have more free choice options to pursue things they’re passionate about. Aspiring writers could have their own blog. Future doctors could do extra science research and experiments. If we showed more respect for kids’ interests and desires and let them spend more time on things that they are passionate and excited about, school would be a much happier place for them.

. . . and some more characteristics of camps which should be common school practices – from 5 Ways School Should Be More Like Summer Camp

Intentional, Intense Community

Summer camps make a point of helping the community to bond quickly through playing games, hiking and camping together (a.k.a. meeting and coming through a challenge together), telling stories around a fire, sharing sleeping quarters, and creating rituals around daily tasks like eating.

Facing Fears and Pushing Comfort Zones

At summer camp, kids do things they are afraid of.  They go swimming in creeks with snakes, they sleep in cabins with creepy crawlies, they go on 3-day hikes and sleep in the woods with who knows what kinds of monsters, they scrape their knees, and they don’t have their parents around to rely on.  Now if that isn’t just a recipe for learning coping skills and how to handle the unexpected, I don’t know what is.

Outdoors and Interactive

We already know that sitting in a desk and being lectured at is not the best way to learn.  There are also studies showing that environmental education boosts creativity, social skills, and problems solving skills.  So it’s clear that education should be more hands-on and more out of doors.

Regular Communal Singing

Singing a beautiful or lively group song is different than singing along to the radio.  It can bring a group together and can infuse a relatively mundane task with humor and joy.  But it takes time and commitment to build up a community repertoire of songs.  We have to take the time to teach them and sing them regularly so that is an inclusive activity.  There is little quite so touching as a group of young people harmonizing around a camp fire, or singing a song of gratitude to the cooks, or merrily caroling as they walk to the next activity.

Mixed Age Groups and Mentoring

This is something that summer camps get really right and most schools get really wrong.  At summer camp, kids are constantly mingling across ages.  Teen-age counselors are leading the activities and what could be more hip than that to a 10-year old?  Here is this older, totally cool person, who isn’t nearly so old as their parents, who they can jump on, and look up to and learn games from.  They get to see this older person making jokes, having conversations, dealing with problems, singing songs, having fun and generally being a model of (more) mature, multi-dimensional life.  In schools we separate the teen-agers from the pre-teens and both suffer.  The teens lose out on that sense of responsibility and accountability; they don’t get that sense that their behavior might influence someone else.  And the young ones only have teachers and parents to look up to, who seem so distant and foreign, instead of learning from a variety of ages and outlooks.

. . . and some others based on my own experiences.

Arts Integration

Doing art with a fully stocked art room is a central activity at camp.  All kids are artists at camp with accessible art projects like scratch art, lanyards, leaf rubbings, tie dying.  Children smile with pride at their creations rather than saying things like “I can’t draw” or “I am not an artist.”

Informal drama and theater is also part of the camp experience with talent shows, charades, and paper bag dramatics.   There is innate joy to expressing oneself through drama and theater without the fear of being graded or judged harshly.

Games, Sports, Movement

Sitting around passively isn’t part of the camp experience.  If the camper isn’t playing a sport, s/he might be going for a swim.  Then s/he runs to the art room, and after that – maybe a quick game of tag.  Kids aren’t (or shouldn’t) be told not to run (as in run in the halls).

Learning from Multiple Sources with Ongoing, Informal Assessment

Multiple means and avenues are used to learn to swim, tie a knot, identify a leaf, make a lanyard, and/or sing a song,  A combination of direct instruction, peer modeling, peer feedback, and natural consequences work together to help insure that most campers learn these skills.  Evaluation and assessment are indirect and ongoing – again coming from multiple sources.

. . . and finally, if we are serious about student engagement, motivation, and retention, then student satisfaction with and enjoyment of school should be a primary goal.  From the New York Times article, Why Can’t School Be More Like Summer?

Summer camps are by design happy places, run by people who clearly have been selected for their genial and outgoing personalities as well as their willingness to be ridiculous and silly on short notice. Camps embrace what Robert Louis Stevenson called “the duty to be happy”  Happiness is embedded in the summer camp business plan, and is central to what they do. If children  aren’t happy; they won’t come back.  Schools could learn a lot about student retention and achievement by taking a page from the summer camp happiness playbook.This is especially true right now.  Yet in all the talk about education reform, happiness rarely seems to make the list, even though there’s plenty of evidence out there about what an improved school environment might mean for learning and test scores, not to mention student attitudes and drop-out rates.

The bottom line, which is the focus of many of my blog posts, is that there is a belief that schools need to be the way they are.  They do not.

-

 

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

August 31, 2014 at 9:38 pm

The Importance of Authenticity Inside and Outside the Classroom

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I teach graduate educational technology courses at Boise State University to mostly in-service teachers.  One of them is Integrating Technology Into the Classroom.  It as a course with a project-based learning framework.  Learners are given a series of course projects and asked to develop learning activities for their particular content areas and grade levels.  Examples include developing a video library and associated lesson for their content area; developing a lesson for their content area that uses social media, etc.

This morning I received the following communication from a co-instructor:

Jackie, I thought you would want to know this.  I teach 514.  I ask each student to reflect on a “best learning experience” and this semester I have a student in 514 who wrote the following:

My experience of EDTECH 541 stands out for me as the best experience I have had in learning. I say this for many reasons, and they start with how the structure of the course allowed such creative freedom along with the exploration and experimentation of new tools. With every assignment, I just remember thinking how fun it was, and how great it was that a school class could engage me so much.

Each assignment just seemed to get better. It also seemed like everything just flowed, and the work I was doing had some real impact. I was using the skills I practiced and learned the night before working on the project, the next day in my workplace. I even helped coworkers based on some of the things I learned in the class.

A major moment in this course was some validation of my work that I was not used to. A few of my assignments were used as examples, and some were even tweeted out, and retweeted! The fact that a professional in this field (the professor) and others thought my project had real value and took the time to share it thrilled me. That has been one of the best moments in my education, because for the first time I felt my work extended beyond the gradebook. I also felt like my work gave me some validation and confidence that I just might be able to put some things on a resume that might land me a sought after position someday.

I also remembering throughout the course how great it would be to do that kind of work for a living. It validated my choice and the months I spent trying to find a master’s degree I wanted to pursue. And it was a vast amount of time. I looked for nearly 4 months trying to find something, and just by chance I discovered this program. The EDTECH 541 experience I had was worth it.

2014-08-30_1522

Of course, educators love getting feedback like this.  It is affirming, but more importantly are the rewards the learner received.  Note that the tone of this communication was not about me as the educator but her as a learner and student.  This is what excites me the most.  Messages gleamed from this feedback:

  • Learners need to be given authentic tasks which asks them to put their “selves” into the learning projects.
  • As noted in this communication, school should be fun and engaging.
  • Skills being acquired by learners should be relevant and usable in their lives outside of the classroom (regardless of age).
  • The educator should help learners establish authentic audiences where the learners can share their work to authentic audiences outside of the classroom, to audiences of their peers.  (Note: peers aren’t necessarily others of the same age.  They are those who share the same interests and passions, who have similar perspectives of the world.)
  • Social-emotional gains are important.  Learners gaining confidence in themselves and their abilities should be an intentional goal in all learning environments.
  • The bottom line, which I have stressed in the past, is that the educator should set up the conditions for learners to say, “I am a good and confident learner,” rather than “You are a good teacher.”

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

August 30, 2014 at 9:33 pm

The Educator with a Growth Mindset: A Staff Workshop

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I had the great privilege of facilitating a staff workshop on growth mindsets for the teachers and staff at Carlos Rosario International School.

Staff were given access to the slide deck in order interact with the slides and resources during the workshop.

 

What follows are the activities along with resources used during the workshop.

It began with the viewing of a few “inspirational” videos.

Online resources were provided and small groups (prearranged prior to the workshop based on teaching disciplines) were asked to explore and list the characteristics of both growth and fixed mindsets.

They provided with a link to this The Educator and the Growth Mindset Thinglink (which contains lots of linked resources). Note – I created the graphic first using Piktochart.

The Educator with a Growth Mindset-1http://www.thinglink.com/scene/549674394805338114

They were also given:

The teaching and support staff were asked to bring their own devices.  This provided them the opportunity to explore the resources within their small groups:

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Each team created its own list of growth v fixed mindsets:

DSC01392

Then came an experiential activity called, Flip the Tarp.  On one side of the tarp, using masking tape and markers, they listed characteristics of fixed mindset.

DSC01383

On the other side, they listed characteristics of a growth mindset:

DSC01394

They were then asked to flip their tarps.  They were instructed to have all their team members stand on the tarp with the fixed mindset characteristics facing up.  Their task was to flip the tarp, with no one stepping off of the tarp while doing so, so that the side with the growth mindset characteristics were facing up.

2014-08-27_1124

After the activity, each group was asked to report to the larger group what they learned. Some of the responses included:

  • When we were given this task, we first said that there was no way to do it – a fixed mindset.  Then someone offered a suggestion, we built off of that and ended up with a growth mindset and finishing the task.
  • Each one of us had our own perspective about how to do this.  When ideas were thrown out, we developed other perspectives – thinking outside of our own boxes.

To reinforce and personalize concepts related to the growth mindset, the teams were asked to choose from photos taken of them during the Flip the Tarp activity (uploaded into Google+ immediately after the activity), add a caption about growth mindsets, and add a few slides to a collaborative Google Presentation that was being shared and developed by the entire teaching and support staff team:

The next activity was an educator self-assessment of growth mindset behaviors.  These can be found in the slide deck.  After reviewing these, Socrative was used to do an anonymous polling of these self-assessed and reported by the Carlos Rosarios staff.

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They were then asked to identify one or two of these growth mindset behaviors that they would like to work on and improve during the next semester.  These were shared with their small groups:

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The final component of the workshop was having the teams examine and develop strategies for increasing the growth mindsets of their students.

The resources they explored included:

IMG_20140813_151336002

 http://mathequalslove.blogspot.com/2014/08/growth-mindset-and-sbg-bulletin-board.html?spref=tw

Then the teams developed strategies for working with their students:

DSC01427

 DSC01429The teaching staff was left with this parting shot:

Slide61

Some Post-Workshop Teacher Feedback

  • I agree that it’s important to think about how we offer praise in our classroom and how that links to learning. I especially liked when Jackie said students should leave thinking their good learners, not that we’re good teachers. I liked her message and I agree that teaching our students about mindset can help improve their achievement
  • I agree with the idea of positive thinking. Presentation went quickly. Enjoyed the different activities.
  • it was great!  but it went a little fast. She kept moving when i would have liked her to explain some things a little more.
  • I like her message and she gave very good examples.
  • I thought what she shared were some good reminders and I look forward to being more purposeful about using her overall thoughts and more specific ideas as well.
  • I found the discussion portion useful.

 

 

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

August 29, 2014 at 2:17 am

The Educator as a Design Thinker

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[Note: This was originally written for and posted in the Heinemann Digital Campus. Unlimited access to more articles like this, as well as video clips and full-length books are available on the Heinemann Digital Campus. Subscribe at: http://www.heinemann.com/digitalcampus/referenceLibrary.aspx.]

Information abundance, emerging technologies, broad ranging social connections via social media, and the ability to create, produce,and  share original works of writing, art, inventions with authentic audiences have created a new age of learning, one that is qualitatively different than the 20th century.  Tony Wagner, author of Creating Innovators: he Making of Young People Who Will Change The World, stated “”The world doesn’t care what you know, but what you can do with what you know.”

Schools need to reflect these changes. Schools are doing Education 1.0; talking about doing Education 2.0; when they should be planning and implementing Education 3.0.  Some of the characteristics of of those living and working in a Web-Education 3.0 world include:

  • Understanding learning as a process; the how-to’s of learning.
  • Knowing how and where to search for resources, people, information when needed, also known as just-in-time learning.
  • Being able to make social, intellectual, interest-driven, and academic connections both face-to-face and virtually.
  • Adding to current fields of study, knowledge bases and content areas through giving feedback, sharing resources, creating content.

Design thinking has great potential to aid both educators and learners in developing these 21st century living, learning, and playing skills,  Many, including the Stanford’s d-school. are working towards integrating these ideas into educational settings to help insure that education is more aligned with real world skills and needs.

This movement to build a generation of design thinkers could not be more timely or more relevant. We are living in an age of increased complexity, and are facing global challenges at an unprecedented scale. The nature of connectivity, interactivity, and information is changing at lightening speed. We need to enable a generation of leaders who believe they can make a difference in the world around them, because we need this generation to build new systems and rebuild declining ones. We need them to be great collaborators, great communicators, and great innovators (Design Thinking in Schools: An Emerging Movement Building Creative Confidence in our Youth).

The intent of this article is to interest and motivate educators in using design thinking to approach their instructional strategies and curriculum from a fresh perspective; to learn and promote skills, attitudes, and knowledge that are more specific for their students as well as having them develop skills for being 21st learners both in and out of school.

Every day you design ways to interact with your students around content. You can follow a design process to be more intentional about connecting this content to the interests and desires of today’s learners by finding out more about the things that they do outside of school and connecting that to the content you are bringing to them (Design Thinking for Educators).

So simply put, when implementing the design thinking model, the educator approaches his or her learners with the question, “What do you want to learn?” and then uses the process of design thinking with his or her learners as co-creators to develop the curriculum and learning activities specific to their interests, desires, and needs.

Essential Questions

  • How can the educator use design thinking principles to inform instructional and curricular decisions?
  • How can the educator include their students in creating a learning environment informed and influenced by design thinking?

It is understandable that given today’s school climate of accountability, testings, standards, and scripted curriculum, going into a classroom without a plan other than to use design thinking to design the curriculum and learning activities can be a more than a little disconcerting or seem like an impossible endeavor.  But for educators who want to prepare their learners for functioning in today’s and future worlds, this process can be invaluable.  Benefits can occur even if the educator can devote some of the class time to this process (e.g. 20% time),

educator as design thinker

Guiding Strategies

  • The first and most important step in the design thinking process is knowing and empathizing with the audience, in this case, the learners. Learning activities such as interviews, learning surveys, get-to-know one another activities, and empathy development are used so the educator gets to know the students; students know the educator; and the students know one another. This is crucial step so that instruction and curriculum can be selected and tailored for each specific student group.
  • The focus is on processes – producing, assessing, developing, creating, revisiting,  revising. Learning content becomes secondary to developing the how-to skills for how to be a learner in the 21st century.
  • Ambiguity is normalized and failure is seen as iterative.  Reframing Failure as Iteration Allows Students to Thrive.
  • Group skills for design thinking include active listening, collaboration, conflict management are integral for the process.  Participatory, democratic, inclusive principles and methods guide decision-making. Design thinking honors all voices; acknowledging that everyone – educators and learners alike – have valuable input into the design, implementation, and assessment of the learning activities.
  • Continuous feedback loops for and by the educator and the learners help inform the process. Feedback or assessment is not a separate step or entity as is typical in the classroom. The educator and learners engage in continual evaluation of the efficacy of the learning activities through group discussions, writing, informal assessments, making revisions, alterations, and detours based on this feedback.
  • Deep reflection is part of the process. Related to continuous feedback is building into the process the skills and attitudes of being a reflective practitioner. This permits both the educator and learners to take a step back to analyze what is working and not working within and throughout the design process.

Benefits of Bringing the Design Thinking Process Into the Classroom

Some of the benefits of integrating design thinking into the classroom for both teachers and students include:

  • The curriculum becomes tailored to the student group being served.  Because the focus and intention is on tailoring learning to the student group as well as individual students, differentiated instruction and universal design for learning become inherently and naturally part of the process.
  • The educator and students learn the process to address ambiguous problems and concerns. The result is the development of tolerance for and skills to address ambiguous problems which is more aligned with how the real world works.
  • The educator and students develop skills related to innovation, creativity, critical thinking, problem solving – those skills valued by today’s workforce and society.

Resources for the Educator as a Design Thinker

Ideo. (n.d.).  Design Thinking for Educators Toolkit - http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com/about-toolkit/

Pfau, P. (2014).  Rethinking Education with Design Thinking - http://www.metropolismag.com/Point-of-View/February-2014/Rethinking-Education-with-Design-Thinking/.

Speicher, S. (2013).  Design Thinking in Schools: An Emerging Movement Building Creative Confidence in our Youth –  http://gettingsmart.com/2013/11/design-thinking-schools-emerging-movement-building-creative-confidence-youth/

Teachthought. (2013). 45 Design Thinking Resources For Educators http://www.teachthought.com/teaching/45-design-thinking-resources-for-educators

Video Teacher Voices: What does design mean to you?  http://vimeo.com/46066703

 

Written by Jackie Gerstein, Ed.D.

August 27, 2014 at 8:54 pm

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